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上海外国语大学2017英语MTI考研英语翻译基础真题

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发表于 2018-4-3 13:34:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
海外国语大学2017英语MTI考研英语翻译基础真题
答题时间3小时

1.英译汉
该部分选取的是卢梭的《爱弥儿》(Emile, or On Education)部分文章,主要选自《爱弥儿》第三卷第一节。全文1000多字,共11段,但题目只要求翻译划线部分,总计翻译872字,共6段。完整原文如下:

The whole course of man's life up to adolescence is a period of weakness; yet there comes a time during these early years when the child's strength overtakes the demands upon it, when the growing creature, though absolutely weak, is relatively strong. His needs are not fully developed and his present strength is more than enough for them. He would be a very feeble man, but he is a strong child.

What is the cause of man's weakness? It is to be found in the disproportion between his strength and his desires. It is our passions that make us weak, for our natural strength is not enough for their satisfaction. To limit our desires comes to the same thing, therefore, as to increase our strength. When we can do more than we want, we have strength enough and to spare, we are really strong. This is the third stage of childhood, the stage with which I am about to deal. I still speak of childhood for want of a better word; for our scholar is approaching adolescence, though he has not yet reached the age of puberty.

About twelve or thirteen the child's strength increases far more rapidly than his needs. The strongest and fiercest of the passions is still unknown, his physical development is still imperfect and seems to await the call of the will. He is scarcely aware of extremes of heat and cold and braves them with impunity. He needs no coat, his blood is warm; no spices, hunger is his sauce, no food comes amiss at this age; if he is sleepy he stretches himself on the ground and goes to sleep; he finds all he needs within his reach; he is not tormented by any imaginary wants; he cares nothing what others think; his desires are not beyond his grasp; not only is he self-sufficing, but for the first and last time in his life he has more strength than he needs.

I know beforehand what you will say. You will not assert that the child has more needs than I attribute to him, but you will deny his strength. You forget that I am speaking of my own pupil, not of those puppets who walk with difficulty from one room to another, who toil indoors and carry bundles of paper. Manly strength, you say, appears only with manhood; the vital spirits, distilled in their proper vessels and spreading through the whole body, can alone make the muscles firm, sensitive, tense, and springy, can alone cause real strength. This is the philosophy of the study; I appeal to that of experience. In the country districts, I see big lads hoeing, digging, guiding the plough, filling the wine-cask, driving the cart, like their fathers; you would take them for grown men if their voices did not betray them. Even in our towns, iron-workers', tool makers', and blacksmiths' lads are almost as strong as their masters and would be scarcely less skilful had their training begun earlier. If there is a difference, and I do not deny that there is, it is, I repeat, much less than the difference between the stormy passions of the man and the few wants of the child. Moreover, it is not merely a question of bodily strength, but more especially of strength of mind, which reinforces and directs the bodily strength.

This interval in which the strength of the individual is in excess of his wants is, as I have said, relatively though not absolutely the time of greatest strength. It is the most precious time in his life; it comes but once; it is very short, all too short, as you will see when you consider the importance of using it aright.

He has, therefore, a surplus of strength and capacity which he will never have again. What use shall he make of it? He will strive to use it in tasks which will help at need. He will, so to speak, cast his present surplus into the storehouse of the future; the vigorous child will make provision for the feeble man; but he will not store his goods where thieves may break in, nor in barns which are not his own. To store them aright, they must be in the hands and the head, they must be stored within himself. This is the time for work, instruction, and inquiry. And note that this is no arbitrary choice of mine, it is the way of nature herself.

Human intelligence is finite, and not only can no man know everything, he cannot even acquire all the scanty knowledge of others. Since the contrary of every false proposition is a truth, there are as many truths as falsehoods. We must, therefore, choose what to teach as well as when to teach it. Some of the information within our reach is false, some is useless, some merely serves to puff up its possessor. The small store which really contributes to our welfare alone deserves the study of a wise man, and therefore of a child whom one would have wise. He must know not merely what is, but what is useful.

From this small stock we must also deduct those truths which require a full grown mind for their understanding, those which suppose a knowledge of man's relations to his fellow-men--a knowledge which no child can acquire; these things, although in themselves true, lead an inexperienced mind into mistakes with regard to other matters.

We are now confined to a circle, small indeed compared with the whole of human thought, but this circle is still a vast sphere when measured by the child's mind. Dark places of the human understanding, what rash hand shall dare to raise your veil? What pitfalls does our so-called science prepare for the miserable child. Would you guide him along this dangerous path and draw the veil from the face of nature? Stay your hand. First make sure that neither he nor you will become dizzy. Beware of the specious charms of error and the intoxicating fumes of pride. Keep this truth ever before you--Ignorance never did any one any harm, error alone is fatal, and we do not lose our way through ignorance but through self-confidence.

His progress in geometry may serve as a test and a true measure of the growth of his intelligence, but as soon as he can distinguish between what is useful and what is useless, much skill and discretion are required to lead him towards theoretical studies. For example, would you have him find a mean proportional between two lines, contrive that he should require to find a square equal to a given rectangle; if two mean proportionals are required, you must first contrive to interest him in the doubling of the cube. See how we are gradually approaching the moral ideas which distinguish between good and evil. Hitherto we have known no law but necessity, now we are considering what is useful; we shall soon come to what is fitting and right.

Man's diverse powers are stirred by the same instinct. The bodily activity, which seeks an outlet for its energies, is succeeded by the mental activity which seeks for knowledge. Children are first restless, then curious; and this curiosity, rightly directed, is the means of development for the age with which we are dealing. Always distinguish between natural and acquired tendencies. There is a zeal for learning which has no other foundation than a wish to appear learned, and there is another which springs from man's natural curiosity about all things far or near which may affect himself. The innate desire for comfort and the impossibility of its complete satisfaction impel him to the endless search for fresh means of contributing to its satisfaction. This is the first principle of curiosity; a principle natural to the human heart, though its growth is proportional to the development of our feeling and knowledge. If a man of science were left on a desert island with his books and instruments and knowing that he must spend the rest of his life there, he would scarcely trouble himself about the solar system, the laws of attraction, or the differential calculus. He might never even open a book again; but he would never rest till he had explored the furthest corner of his island, however large it might be. Let us therefore omit from our early studies such knowledge as has no natural attraction for us, and confine ourselves to such things as instinct impels us to study.

2.汉译英
2017年考研汉译英话题涉及“中国学”,中国文化,回忆版真题是一篇演讲稿,大约400-500字,上外官网上有一篇类似主题的介绍,仅供参考:
五洲学者齐聚上外,群儒论道共话中国
上外首届“中国学的国际对话:方法与体系”国际研讨会召开
2016年11月5日,上海外国语大学首届“中国学的国际对话:方法与体系”国际研讨会在虹口校区高翻学院同传室拉开帷幕,本次学术研讨会由上外主办,中国学研究所协同国际关系与公共事务学院、高级翻译学院联合承办,欧盟研究中心、俄罗斯研究中心、英国研究中心、中日韩合作研究中心以及马克思主义学院共同参与。上外党办、校办、宣传部等部门对本次会议给予了大力支持。
本次研讨会是中国学研究所成立以来,在学科体系日臻完善、教学有条不紊推进的同时,于科研领域的初次探索,旨在辩明中国学的方法与体系,探讨中国的发展规律和特点以及中国在世界上的地位与作用,从而为“中国的中国学”发展贡献思维火花。根据校领导的指示,中国学研究所协同校内多研究中心邀请到来自5大洲10个国家21所学校的近50位学者参会,共同讨论“中国学的概念与方法”、“中国学的体系与学科”、“传统汉学与当代中国学的比较”以及“中国学发展趋势展望”四大议题。会议吸引到来自中国学、马克思主义等专业的40余位硕博士生参与。
开幕式由中国学研究所所长武心波教授主持,上海社会科学院副院长谢京辉教授、上外副校长冯庆华教授致开幕辞。冯校长指出伴随中国学学科影响力的不断扩大,上外正结合自身优势打造独具特色的中国学;在未来,上外将不断加大对中国学的支持力度,使得中国学研究更加成熟。谢院长表示上海外国语大学是国家级学术交流平台——世界中国学论坛——在中国学领域内紧密合作的兄弟单位,上海社科院与上外“在举办论坛到研究生培养方面的合作空间将不断扩大。”
开幕式第二项,冯庆华副校长为埃及艾因夏姆斯大学穆赫森·法尔贾尼教授、西交利物浦大学大卫·古德曼教授等7位学者颁发“上海外国语大学中国学研究所海外学术顾问”聘书。藉此加强上外与国外一流中国学研究机构、资深中国学学者的联系,促成本土中国学与海外中国学的密切互动。
开幕式第三项,上海国际问题研究院学术委员会主任、研究员,上海市人民政府参事杨洁勉教授发表了题为“Systemic Designing and Methodological Exploring: My Understanding of China Study in China”的主旨演讲。杨教授在发言中提到尽管在很长的时间里中国都在做关于自身的研究,但真正将学科体系框架构建起来,仍需付出巨大努力。如何通过国际对话而非仅仅内部交流表达中国的思维与认知是亟待我们去变革的。
主旨演讲之后,与会代表进行了集体合影并茶歇。上外俄罗斯研究中心主任汪宁教授主持了第一场讨论,复旦大学中国研究院范勇鹏副教授、上海社科院助理研究员潘玮琳博士、日本爱知大学高桥五郎教授、俄罗斯莫斯科友谊大学尤里教授以及韩国高丽大学李正男教授围绕“中国学概念、方法与思潮”展开辩论。
第二议题由上外欧盟研究中心副主任戴启秀教授主持,四川大学高中伟教授、北京外国语大学管永前副教授、上外武心波教授与意大利马切拉塔大学青年讲师安博璐博士、西交利物浦大学中国学系主任古德曼教授,作为各自大学中国学项目的负责人与建设者共同交流了办学经验,探讨如何进行“中国学”专业人才培养、完善学科体系。
上外英国中心副主任高健副教授主持了第三议题,在这一场次上海社科院历史所周武研究员、复旦大学中华文明国际研究中心副主任李天纲教授、华东师范大学对外汉语学院顾伟列教授,对话埃及艾因夏姆斯大学穆赫辛教授、澳大利亚昆士兰大学李志刚教授、意大利国际语言与传媒大学讲师斐德博士。纵论传统汉学与当代中国学,跨越历史、宗教、文学等诸多领域。
“中国学的发展趋势展望”单元,上外马克思主义学院院长赵鸣歧教授担任了会议主持,华东师范大学历史系教授刘昶、讲师张昕,武汉大学政治学与公共管理学院副教授刘杉、上外马克思主义学院讲师张放与美国新罕布什尔大学政治系副教授李道明、加拿大多伦多大学博士候选人阎述良就中国道路、中国视角、国家资本主义等问题展开交锋。
经过一天激烈的头脑风暴,上外国际关系与公共事务学院副院长刘宏松教授做了大会总结;上外科研处处长、中日韩合作研究中心主任王有勇教授向与会代表致感谢辞。大会宴请由冯庆华副校长主持。值得一提的是本次会议全程配备同声传译,同传团队由上外高翻院长张爱玲教授亲自挂帅,上外高翻过硬的专业技能与先进的同传设备使得中外学者无障碍探讨畅论中国成为可能。
在校领导的高度重视、校内各部门的积极联动下,上外首届围绕“中国学”展开的国际研讨会取得圆满成功。思维碰撞、学术争鸣,本次会议为国内外19所高校与科研院所提供了共话中国的平台,为国内外长期中国学合作搭建了平台,得到与会各方的一致认可与赞誉。

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